During the 17th century the Religious Society of Friends, better known today as Quakers, was founded. Unlike the Protestants, Quakers believed each person contained within them Divine Light meaning “all people, regardless of their familiarity with the Bible, might have access to grace” (Plank 2016, 523). For this reason, women could speak up, publish their writings and take part if they felt moved to do so (Tarter 1993), though, eventually the Meetings would become separated (Adams 2001, 660). Slavery and the treatment of Natives were issues taken up by early Quakers. While preaching in Barbados, Quakers were forced to take a moderate stance on slavery, after being accused of inciting rebellion and causing suspicion among the slave holders (Plank 2016, 517).
Featured above is a hand-written correspondence from Henry M. Flagler (1830 – 1913) to a Mr. Crawford inquiring about a good time to meet with the second Bishop of St. Augustine, John Moore. The note is written on the Hotel Alcazar stationary and is dated September 19, 1889. The document is owned by the St. Augustine Historical Society. Wally Martinsons who cataloged the item noted that this item was saved from destruction “by Neil Smith, Florida East Coast Railway (FECRy) Treasurer, on 03/1989. The documents were salvaged from the FECRy storage building on King Street then it was transferred to the City of St Augustine” (1990). Without his diligent efforts’ history would have been lost.
Young Life began as a ministry to teens in Texas in the 1930s (Young Life, n.d.). It went on to become a multinational organization in the effort to “go where kids are, win the right to be heard and share the Gospel of Jesus Christ with them” (Young Life, n.d.). Through fun club meetings and summer camps that in 2007 totaled 24 and reached over 100,000 teens a year (Lanker 2007, 15), Young Life strove to reach the many teens who were not part of a church.
Class. D for Difference. R for Race. An ABC of Equality is a children’s
book addressing social justice concepts via the alphabet. Increasingly,
grownups are exploring subjects related to equality with their children. Why?
Because our world is changing. By 2060, no single racial majority will exist (Kotler,
Haider, and Levine 2019, 6). Talking about race is thus imperative, and the
earlier the better.
In 1915, the United States had 7,598 National Banks and
18,227 State Banks (FDIC.Gov 2014). One of the banks that opened that year was
the Citizens Bank of Monroe located in Monroe NY. Though the building is no
longer in use the bank is still talked about and remembered for its great
customer service, it’s giant vault, and the ability to survive the run on banks
in the 1930s. Many banks did not survive the banking panics that began in
October of 1930 and lasted until Roosevelts national banking holiday in 1933
(Bordo and Landon-Lane 2010, 487). During this time over 8,000 commercial banks
were part of the Federal Reserve System, but nearly 16,000 were not members, including
the Citizens Bank of Monroe (Richardson 2013).
sculpture, Birds, resides at the top of the Leonia Public Library’s rear
stairs where, on a busy day, hundreds of people pass by. The Leonia Public
Library welcomes all people, no matter their background. Likewise, St. John’s
University’s mission is to respect all people; this includes sharing our gifts
with others (St. John’s University 2019). The creator of Birds, Enid
Bell Palanchian, excluded none when displaying her work, implying that art is
not only for the wealthy.
In an old, dilapidated book, found among a trove of
yet-to-be processed archival material at Green-Wood Cemetery, the inevitable
resting place of four famous brothers is revealed. James, John, Joseph Wesley
and Fletcher Harper, the founders of the eponymous publishing house, Harper
& Brothers, purchased four adjacent 300 sq. ft. burial plots in Green-Wood
Cemetery in May of 1845.
The first manual switchboard came about in 1878 and Hazleton, Pennsylvania got its first dial switchboard in 1954. At 11:59pm on April 24the switchboard was up and running in this small town (The Plain Speaker 1954). The Bell telephone company decided to invest in this small town by opening up a building on W. Green St. in Hazleton; with the new switchboard, converting to dial service was costing them $1.5 million (The Plain Speaker 1954). According to Tom Gabos, who is the president of the Hazleton Historical Society Museum, “this switchboard came from the corner of W. Green Street, right across from where our library now is” (Tom Gabos, pers. comm, September 2019). This new technology that was coming to Hazleton was welcomed with open arms. Once word got around of the new switchboard technology, Hazleton was booming with people who wanted to see how this technology would work. By 1940, the population of Hazleton was just over 38,000 (City of Hazleton Pennsylvania, n.d.). By 1953, about 14,000 people were using telephone technology (The Plain Speaker 1954). This is a little under half of what the population was in Hazleton back in 1940.
The King and I is a musical theatre play, with music by
Richard Rodgers and lyrics by Oscar Hammerstein II that originally premiered on
Broadway at St. James Theatre. Mongkut, King of Siam (now Thailand), hired a
British tutor, Mrs. Anna Leonowens to teach his children English. A widow, Anna
tutors while simultaneously attempting to humanize their cultural difference
and broaden their world-view beyond Siam. Anna endeavors to remove Siam’s
perceived barbaric image by assimilating the family into Western culture and
customs. Anna and Mongkut engage in a short lived romance, and after subsequent
family turmoil with one of the King’s many wives, Anna wants to leave Siam. On
his deathbed, Mongkut asks Anna to watch over his son, Chulalongkorn, as he
begins his rule.
This newspaper clipping of two men, one of which was holding a guitar quickly catches the eye due to the overtones of potential Blackface. However, after reading William Harris’ review, I discovered the work of Trinidadian playwright Mustapha Matura who used his experiences to craft powerful political commentaries. Matura first began writing and directing plays in London often tackling the ways Black people have been mistreated and abused throughout the Caribbean and the UK.