There have been three major migration periods in the United States in the last century: a largely laissez faire outlook in the 1930s; the Bracero Program, in effect during and after World War II; and, following the elimination of the Bracero Program, passage of major immigration laws in 1965 (Rosenblum and Brick 2011, 1). The Bracero Program was a formal agreement signed between the United States and Mexico in 1942, establishing “a migrant guest worker program,” which had favorable conditions for Mexican immigrants (Rosenblum and Brick 2011, 4). The Bracero Program experienced significant pushback, and upon its expiration in 1964, was followed instead by the Immigration and Nationality Act in 1965, which established per-country caps and a tiered preference system for rationing visas within a country (Rosenblum and Brick 2011, 5).
On Sunday, December 7, 1941, shortly before 8:00 a.m., Imperial Japanese airplanes approached the island of Oʻahu and began their surprise attack on Pearl Harbor and Hickam Field, two United States military installations on the island. The alarm sounded at 8:05 a.m., and Engines 4 and 6 were promptly dispatched to Hickam Field to respond to the blazes and medical emergencies caused by gunfire and bombs (Bowen 1979, 126). As part of a “mutual aid pact,” the Honolulu Fire Department, a civilian fire department, assisted the United States military, and vice versa (Bowen 1979, 127).
In November 1959, E Schuyler English, editor, and president of the Pilgrim Fellowship addressed his supports, encouraging them to give towards the ministry and missions. “For nineteen centers, since our Lord told His apostles to be witnesses concerning Him to the uttermost part of the earth, one generation after another has followed the apostolic Christians in carrying the Gospel to those in darkness throughout the world” (English, E. Schuyler 1959b, 4). The small monthly letter sent out to supporters provided the supporters an opportunity to engage with missions around the world. In an earlier newsletter, English suggested that there are three ways that people can participate in missions to the poor and oppressed; those who can go, those who can support, and all can pray (English 1959a, 2). The newsletter allowed people to engage with missions overseas in personal missions and financially through gifts.