Young Life began as a ministry to teens in Texas in the 1930s (Young Life, n.d.). It went on to become a multinational organization in the effort to “go where kids are, win the right to be heard and share the Gospel of Jesus Christ with them” (Young Life, n.d.). Through fun club meetings and summer camps that in 2007 totaled 24 and reached over 100,000 teens a year (Lanker 2007, 15), Young Life strove to reach the many teens who were not part of a church.
Class. D for Difference. R for Race. An ABC of Equality is a children’s
book addressing social justice concepts via the alphabet. Increasingly,
grownups are exploring subjects related to equality with their children. Why?
Because our world is changing. By 2060, no single racial majority will exist (Kotler,
Haider, and Levine 2019, 6). Talking about race is thus imperative, and the
earlier the better.
In 1915, the United States had 7,598 National Banks and
18,227 State Banks (FDIC.Gov 2014). One of the banks that opened that year was
the Citizens Bank of Monroe located in Monroe NY. Though the building is no
longer in use the bank is still talked about and remembered for its great
customer service, it’s giant vault, and the ability to survive the run on banks
in the 1930s. Many banks did not survive the banking panics that began in
October of 1930 and lasted until Roosevelts national banking holiday in 1933
(Bordo and Landon-Lane 2010, 487). During this time over 8,000 commercial banks
were part of the Federal Reserve System, but nearly 16,000 were not members, including
the Citizens Bank of Monroe (Richardson 2013).
sculpture, Birds, resides at the top of the Leonia Public Library’s rear
stairs where, on a busy day, hundreds of people pass by. The Leonia Public
Library welcomes all people, no matter their background. Likewise, St. John’s
University’s mission is to respect all people; this includes sharing our gifts
with others (St. John’s University 2019). The creator of Birds, Enid
Bell Palanchian, excluded none when displaying her work, implying that art is
not only for the wealthy.
The first manual switchboard came about in 1878 and Hazleton, Pennsylvania got its first dial switchboard in 1954. At 11:59pm on April 24the switchboard was up and running in this small town (The Plain Speaker 1954). The Bell telephone company decided to invest in this small town by opening up a building on W. Green St. in Hazleton; with the new switchboard, converting to dial service was costing them $1.5 million (The Plain Speaker 1954). According to Tom Gabos, who is the president of the Hazleton Historical Society Museum, “this switchboard came from the corner of W. Green Street, right across from where our library now is” (Tom Gabos, pers. comm, September 2019). This new technology that was coming to Hazleton was welcomed with open arms. Once word got around of the new switchboard technology, Hazleton was booming with people who wanted to see how this technology would work. By 1940, the population of Hazleton was just over 38,000 (City of Hazleton Pennsylvania, n.d.). By 1953, about 14,000 people were using telephone technology (The Plain Speaker 1954). This is a little under half of what the population was in Hazleton back in 1940.
This newspaper clipping of two men, one of which was holding a guitar quickly catches the eye due to the overtones of potential Blackface. However, after reading William Harris’ review, I discovered the work of Trinidadian playwright Mustapha Matura who used his experiences to craft powerful political commentaries. Matura first began writing and directing plays in London often tackling the ways Black people have been mistreated and abused throughout the Caribbean and the UK.
From the turn of the 20th
Century until the mid-1920s, travel by rail was the best way for Midwesterners
to travel beyond their hometowns (Ellison 2019; Geberer 2019, 51; Jenison
Historical Association 2009, 2; van Reken 1998). The road conditions were so
poor during this time that the Dutch and German settlers of small towns such as
Jenison, Saugatuck, and Zeeland were essentially isolated from the larger
cities in the region (van Reken 1998, 77). The implementation of the electric
interurban not only provided the citizens of West Michigan access to the
diversity found in larger cities, but also gave them the opportunity to share
their values with others.
“the most widely published American journalistic humorist of the second half of
the 20th century,” Art Buchwald was a writer unlike any other
(Biography Reference Bank 2007). Buchwald spent the majority of his career
writing a satirical column that, at one time, was syndicated in 550 newspapers
(Nilsen 1996, 80). His contributions to journalism earned him a Pulitzer Prize
in 1982 (Folkenflik 2007).
backdrop of the Civil Rights and Black Power Movements, Black college students
paved the way for campus protests across the United States in the 1960s. Due to
an increased presence of Black students at primarily white institutions (P.W.I.s),
a number of systemic issues and needs were cropping up. This included
recruitment and retention, financial aid, racially sensitive support services,
culturally competent curriculum, and social facilities (Gamson, Peterson, and
Blackburn 1980, 260). Colleges became hotbeds of activism as Black students
fought against institutional racism and stood in solidarity with local
community organizers (Biondi 2012). In the late 1960s, Morningside Heights was
no stranger to Black student organizing. In spring 1968, students at Columbia
University, Barnard College’s brother school, had organized protests against
the white supremacy of the institution (Bradley 2003). The events of that protest
directly led to the founding of the Barnard Organization of Soul Sisters
(B.O.S.S.), whose goals were to center Black women’s issues on campus
(Rosenberg 2004, 241).
Now known as the National LGBTQ Task Force, the image above is of a handwritten note welcoming Bill Bordeau into the National Gay Task Force, and a business card sized membership card.
Authored by Kathleen Daly
At a time when there was a great deal of political and cultural turmoil there was one local New York City man who was a vocal activist for gay rights. Affiliation of any kind with a group like the National Gay Task Force was polarizing for some, especially when this was a time when the American Psychiatric Association, or APA, still had homosexuality classified as a mental illness. In the publication of the original Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, or DSM, in 1952, as well as in the second version, “individuals were labeled sick because they did not fit in, not necessarily because they felt afflicted, in pain, or under any kind of mental stress” (Dunn 2017, 183). The stigma that homosexuals had to live under was codified under the guidelines of mental health diagnoses and it took a great deal of fighting back from many groups inside the APA, and a few outside as well, to get those definitions removed finally in late 1973. Other legal definitions and laws changing, such as the case of 1964’s Civil Rights Act and the fallout within the homosexual community (Bruce 2016, 46-47) gave rise to many people within it wishing to take further action. Continue reading →